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(Solved): MODULE REFLECTION In the box below, reflect on the course material & activities for this mo ...

MODULE REFLECTION – In the box below, reflect on the course material & activities for this module. If you did not complete all the activities, did you have any questions or comments relating to this? What content did you find the most interesting and why? This should be a 4-5 sentence paragraph. Click or tap here to enter text. MODULE 6 DISORDERS OR DISEASES Diseases to know for Module 6, include etiology, typical signs and symptoms, diagnostic testing, and general treatment (or prognosis). Use your textbook and/or supplemental PowerPoint for the completion of this table. Complete sentences are NOT required. It is important to be succinct in your analysis of each disease and choose the most important components to look for in a clinical setting. For this reason, do not include more than 5 different components in each box. Disease or Disorder (Chapter) Etiology (cause) Pathophysiology Signs & Symptoms of Disease (Clinical Presentation) / Risk Factors Diagnosis / Treatment (General) Diabetes insipidus (Ch. 24) Lack of ADH or response to ADH synthetic hormone called desmopressin which replaces ADH Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (Ch. 24) • brain injury • neurosurgery • Concentrated urine • dilute plasma • hypervolemia Hypothyroidism (Ch. 24) • Under functioning thyroid • Wt gain • Fatigue • Dry skin • Slow metabolism Hyperthyroidism (Ch. 24) Continual synthesis thyroid hormones Gland enlargement (goiter), inc. metabolism, wt loss, rapid HR, exophthalmos, nervous, Adrenal Insufficiency (Ch. 24) Primary: Autoimmune destruction of adrenal cortex Second: dec. ACTH Hormone replacement Cushing’s Syndrome (Ch. 24) Moon facies, buffalo hump Striae, easy bruising/wound healing, HTN, hirsutism Amenorrhea Epilepsy (Ch. 34) Sudden, abnormal, disorderly discharge of neurons within the brain Anti-seizure meds, protect pt from injury Headache (Ch. 34) Primary: Second: • OTC meds, RELAX • Depends on cause Parkinson’s Disease (Ch. 34) accumulation of alpha-synuclein, abnormal protein found in structures called Lewy bodies in the brainstem, spinal cord, and regions of the cortex • Classic triad • Bradykinesia (also episodes of akinesia) • Resting tremor (“pill-rolling”) • Muscle rigidity (cogwheel, ratchet movement) Multiple Sclerosis (Ch. 34) Loss of myelin; Affects brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves Dx: McDonald criteria, bld test, CSF analysis Rx: Physical therapy immunosuppressants, Guillain-Barre Syndrome (Ch. 34) Post infectious disease Supportive as life-threatening sequelae may develop Immunomodulating agents Myasthenia Gravis (Ch. 34) Autoimmune disease • Muscle weakness • fatigue • Commonly, the extraocular muscles often affected first; ptosis CHAPTER 25: DIABETES Compare the types of diabetes below: Type Pathological Mechanism Clinical Manifestations Type 1 Diabetes Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, DKA Wt loss Type 2 Diabetes • Insulin resistance over time • Sedentary behavior, obesity CHAPTER 33: CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS Compare the different types of cerebrovascular disorders that can occur. Type Causes (with Description or Notes) Ischemic Stroke (85%) Cerebral Arteriosclerosis Atrial Fibrillation Irregularly irregular heart rhythm. Blood stasis -> clot formation Carotid Stenosis Hemorrhagic Stroke (15%) Rupture of blood vessel (usually cerebral artery) in the brain causing active bleeding -> cerebral edema / anoxic encepha. bld toxic to cells -> lack of oxygen -> anoxic encephalopathy Cause: Symp: Cushing’s triad: [usually 1-sided] Define and discuss the following terms or concepts from text. Term or Concept Definition or Description Ischemia and Ischemic Penumbra Ischemia: reduced bld flow. Cause: plaque buildup / blockage of arteries; atherosclerosis; embolus Ischemic Penumbra: perimeter of ischemic zone -> less perfusion but reversible damage if cause is fixed Glutamate Toxicity • Excess extracellular glutamate -> more Na+, Ca++ influx -> activate degrad. Enzymes -> neuronal cell death • Cause neuronal damage and cell death. Glutamate is a neurotransmitter. • • Symptoms: Transient Ischemic Attack

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